In this paper, we study the application of Test-time domain adaptation in semantic segmentation (TTDA-Seg) where both efficiency and effectiveness are crucial. Existing methods either have low efficiency (e.g., backward optimization) or ignore semantic adaptation (e.g., distribution alignment). Besides, they would suffer from the accumulated errors caused by unstable optimization and abnormal distributions. To solve these problems, we propose a novel backward-free approach for TTDA-Seg, called Dynamically Instance-Guided Adaptation (DIGA). Our principle is utilizing each instance to dynamically guide its own adaptation in a non-parametric way, which avoids the error accumulation issue and expensive optimizing cost. Specifically, DIGA is composed of a distribution adaptation module (DAM) and a semantic adaptation module (SAM), enabling us to jointly adapt the model in two indispensable aspects. DAM mixes the instance and source BN statistics to encourage the model to capture robust representation. SAM combines the historical prototypes with instance-level prototypes to adjust semantic predictions, which can be associated with the parametric classifier to mutually benefit the final results. Extensive experiments evaluated on five target domains demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Our DIGA establishes new state-of-theart performance in TTDA-Seg. Source code is available at: https://github.com/Waybaba/DIGA.
Position Embeddings (PEs), an arguably indispensable component in Vision Transformers (ViTs), have been shown to improve the performance of ViTs on many vision tasks. However, PEs have a potentially high risk of privacy leakage since the spatial information of the input patches is exposed. This caveat naturally raises a series of interesting questions about the impact of PEs on accuracy, privacy, prediction consistency, etc. To tackle these issues, we propose a Masked Jigsaw Puzzle (MJP) position embedding method. In particular, MJP first shuffles the selected patches via our block-wise random jigsaw puzzle shuffle algorithm, and their corresponding PEs are occluded. Meanwhile, for the nonoccluded patches, the PEs remain the original ones but their spatial relation is strengthened via our dense absolute localization regressor. The experimental results reveal that 1) PEs explicitly encode the 2D spatial relationship and lead to severe privacy leakage problems under gradient inversion attack; 2) Training ViTs with the naively shuffled patches can alleviate the problem, but it harms the accuracy; 3) Under a certain shuffle ratio, the proposed MJP not only boosts the performance and robustness on large-scale datasets (i.e.,
ImageNet-1K and ImageNet-C, -A/O) but also improves the privacy preservation ability under typical gradient attacks by a large margin. The source code and trained models are available at https://github.com/yhlleo/MJP.
Generalized category discovery (GCD) is a recently proposed open-world problem, which aims to automatically cluster partially labeled data. The main challenge is that the unlabeled data contain instances that are not only from known categories of the labeled data but also from novel categories. This leads traditional novel category discovery (NCD) methods to be incapacitated for GCD, due to their assumption of unlabeled data are only from novel categories. One effective way for GCD is applying self-supervised learning to learn discriminate representation for unlabeled data. However, this manner largely ignores underlying relationships between instances of the same concepts
(e.g., class, super-class, and sub-class), which results in inferior representation learning. In this paper, we propose a Dynamic Conceptional Contrastive Learning (DCCL) framework, which can effectively improve clustering accuracy by alternately estimating underlying visual
conceptions and learning conceptional representation. In addition, we design a dynamic conception generation and update mechanism, which is able to ensure consistent conception learning and thus further facilitate the optimization of DCCL. Extensive experiments show that DCCL achieves new state-of-the-art performances on six generic and fine-grained visual recognition datasets, especially on fine-grained ones. For example, our method significantly surpasses the best competitor by 16.2% on the new classes for the CUB-200 dataset. Code is available at https://github.com/TPCD/DCCL.
We present a novel graph Transformer generative adversarial network (GTGAN) to learn effective graph node relations
in an end-to-end fashion for the challenging graph-constrained house generation task. The proposed graph- Transformer-based generator includes a novel graph Transformer encoder that combines graph convolutions and self-attentions in a Transformer to model both local and global interactions across connected and non-connected graph nodes. Specifically, the proposed connected node attention (CNA) and non-connected node attention (NNA) aim to capture the global relations across connected nodes and non-connected nodes in the input graph, respectively. The proposed graph modeling block (GMB) aims to exploit local vertex interactions based on a house layout topology. Moreover, we propose a new node classification-based discriminator to preserve the high-level semantic and discriminative node features for different house components. Finally, we propose a novel graph-based cycle-consistency loss that aims at maintaining the relative spatial relationships between ground truth and predicted graphs. Experiments on two challenging graph-constrained house generation tasks (i.e., house layout and roof generation) with two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of GTGAN in terms of objective quantitative scores and subjective visual realism. New state-of-the-art results are established by large margins on both tasks.